In our upcoming spotlight, we will explore and discuss the "most exhaustive studies on the permanent effects of the coronavirus" and the enclosed diagram on the many long term effects of Covid-19. Our editors are honored to present the exculsive interview with Dr. Sonia Villapol, a highly published and most well regarded international researcher for the highest health disorders of our time. Dr. Villapol has dedicated her focus on elucidating the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation or neurogenesis via several models of brain injury (traumatic brain injury or cerebral ischemia), and how inflammatory mediators connect the brain with the periphery. Dr. Villapol has received extramural research funding as Principal Investigator from NIH and was was awarded with an R03-NIH grant to study the neuropathology of brain damage, and more recently an R21-NIH grant to study the role of microbiome in the neuropathology of traumatic brain injury.
|REPORT: Long COVID in Children and Adolescents
Submitted by: Sonia Villapol | doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.03.10.22272237
ABSTRACT: Objective To estimate the prevalence of long COVID in children and adolescents and identify the full spectrum of signs and symptoms present after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Overview: Independent investigators searched PubMed and Embase forobservational studies (a minimum of 30 patients ages ranged from 0 to 18) published before February 10th, 2022 meeting the definitions of the NIH (NICE) for long COVID- consisting of both ongoing (4 to 12 weeks) and post-COVID-19 (≥12 weeks) symptoms.
The literature search yielded 68 articles for long COVID in children and adolescents. After screening, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and meta-analyses. A total of 80,071 children and adolescents with COVID-19 were included. The prevalence of long COVID was 25.24% (95% CI 18.17-33.02),
The most prevalent clinical manifestations were:
mood symptoms (16.50%; 95% CI 7.37-28.15),
fatigue (9.66%; 95% CI 4.45-16.46), and
sleep disorders (8.42%; 95% CI 3.41-15.20).
When compared to controls, children infected by SARS-CoV-2 had a higher risk of persistent
The main limitation of these meta-analyses is the probability of bias, which includes lack of standardized definitions, recall, selection, misclassification, nonresponse and/or loss of follow-up, and the high level of heterogeneity.
Copyright: The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.
LONG HAUL META-ANALYSIS
Dr. Villapol is the Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery at the Center for Neuroregeneration in the Houston Methodist Research Institute. She is also an asst. professor at Weill Cornell Medicine. Her commitments include the pursuit of novel neurorestorative treatments for debilitating brain injuries to open the door to alternative therapies that repair and recovery in the damaged brain through the periphery. Her areas of research expertise includes studies in: Stroke, Inflammation, Microbiome, Immune activation, Cerebral blood flow (CBF), Traumatic brain injury (TBI), Microglia, Ischemia and Apoptosis.
In addition, a recent study of young, healthy adult healthcare workers (in Sweden) adds new data to the frequency of this Long COVID Syndrome- showing an est. 1 in 10 healthcare workers who had what at originally appeared as mild symptoms of COVID-19 continued to experience one or more moderate to severe symptoms eight months later- including loss of smell and taste, fatigue, and breathing problems. This negatively affected their work and personal lives.
ULTRASOUND B-LINES (by: Dr. Pierre Kory- FLCCC.net)
“When conducting lung ultrasound scanning, you look for signs of B-LINES. The more B lines you have equals a bad lung ultrasound score – indicating a high risk of deterioration. For any treatment protocol, if a patient whose lung ultrasound scan was getting worse, we might want to start escalating therapy.”
|FEATURE: POST COVID DIAGNOSTICS
By: Dr. Bruce Patterson, Virologist (from 6/2021 interview)
My lab (IncellDx) has worked with over 5,000 treated and diagnosed long haulers now (which I think is probably the biggest cohort in the world) and growing at the rate of about a hundred patients a day from different regions, we can actually discern these symptoms more effectively. For instance, they all talk about chest pain, but it's not really coming from their lung parenchyma. It's coming from the pleural cavity and the pleura and probably even the diaphragm, which contained inflammation. So when they take a deep breath, it hurts, but their pulse ox shows that they're 98% oxygen. So it has nothing to do with lung.
We just published a report that "Long Haulerism" is really Endotheliitis and Vasculitis. And, we have marker CD40 Ligand and VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) -- they're elevated in almost every long-hauler because we found this cell that carries COVID protein 13-15 months after their infection. This cell is attracted to the blood vessels who have pathway involving FRACTALKINE (which is a protein most people may have never heard of). The cells express the Fractalkine receptors, so they migrate and patrol blood vessels all the while, bringing in COVID protein which elicits an active (local) immune response wherever the cells go - and they go everywhere. They cross the blood-brain barrier, they get into the pleural cavities, they get into the pericardium (the membrane that lines the heart) and people are talking about Pericarditis symptoms except they don't have the fluid that you normally see in a viral pericarditis.
So to me, we found the all encompassing theme. But the presentation of Long Haulers analysis is entirely different on a patient by patient basis. And the other thing is these cells are mobilized by exercise and to a person every long holler has exercise intolerance. Some of the leading health centers in the country promote their approach to long haulers is to do physical therapy. As someone who tracks this on a cellular basis, PT is equivalent to "throwing gasoline on them and lighting it" because that's what you're doing. IMAGING: A COMPLETE VALIDATION
The diagnostic community (including my group) is so far ahead... we started looking at long haulers since June of 2020. We're treating it, we know what's causing it and that's why we're expanding globally. To combine it with the imaging where you can visually see where we correct the immune system by what we do, being able to see that in a holistic, full body way and how that relates to resolution of symptoms is absolutely perfect. I mean, that's what you want to know. In other words, physicians can survey the patient by asking if these symptoms are resolving... or is the brain fog resolving, or the tinnitus fading in three days of therapy with Maraviroc- therapeutically, we have the means of addressing the symptoms, but then to have the confirmation from medical imaging is extremely reassuring to everybody, including the patients.
Though medical and news reports indicate that the vast majority of recovered patients do not appear to show any further health issues, Prevention101 reviews the recorded cases of POST-COVID DISORDERS from those who have identified similar patterns of symptoms. In this special issue, we have assembled a group of experts from varying medical disciplines whose clinical experiences identify and define the after-effects of Covid infection.
COVID ACT NOW: 2021 MAP:
1) COVID ‘Long Haulers’: Long-Term Effects of COVID-19 https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/covid-long-haulers-long-term-effects-of-covid19
3) Types of Post-COVID Conditions https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/long-term-effects.html
4) COVID-19 and the heart: What have we learned? https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/covid-19-and-the-heart-what-have-we-learned-2021010621603
5) post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 - https://directorsblog.nih.gov/tag/post-acute-sequelae-of-covid-19/
6) "What is COVID-19 brain fog — and how can you clear it?" Andrew E. Budson, MD, https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/what-is-covid-19-brain-fog-and-how-can-you-clear-it-2021030822076